Supporting sexual health and relationships for people with learning disabilities 18 December In relationships, sex and sexual health, people with disabilities often face Having a relationship based on trust, commitment and familiarity helps Australian gay men rely on undetectable viral load as a means of HIV prevention, according to interviews with HIV-positive and HIV-negative members of serodifferent couples.
Confidence in the protective power of an undetectable viral load is also strengthened by receiving consistent test results after repeated condomless sex, according to a qualitative study recently published in AIDS and Behavior. Steven Philpot of the Kirby Institute interviewed 21 men who were taking part in Opposites Attract — one of the pivotal studies which demonstrated that HIV-positive people who have an undetectable viral load do not transmit HIV to their sexual partners.
Participation was not restricted to couples with any particular HIV prevention strategy or sexual practice. For this qualitative sub-study, the researchers conducted in-depth interviews with 21 participants — ten were HIV-positive and eleven were HIV-negative.
They came from 15 different couples and men were interviewed on their own, without their partner present. The majority of couples lived in the same house or apartment and had been together for between one and five years. In all but two couples, the partner living with HIV had been diagnosed before entering the relationship.
In the early stages of a relationship, condoms were thought of as natural and automatic. This was generally described as being true for all relationships not just those in which HIV statuses differed. Nonetheless, some couples had been especially cautious. He would push my hand away or push my head away.
Through their connections to information sources including doctors, specialist websites, peers and the Opposites Attract study staff, couples learnt about the possibility of relying on an undetectable viral load as a prevention measure. In general, it was the HIV-negative partner that initiated or suggested sex without condoms. The HIV-positive partners were often apprehensive, as one of them explained:. But he was insistent, and I did want him to do that anyway. With a measure of reluctance, I agreed. The HIV-negative partners often needed to reassure their partners that they were making a well-informed decision and that they were confident in what they were doing.
Many asserted their responsibility for their own sexual health, so as to absolve their HIV-positive partner from feeling solely responsible for HIV prevention. One partner living with HIV said:. Some couples tried sex without condoms, then went back to using them. It tended to be the HIV-positive partner who wanted to return to condoms.
Just as HIV-positive partners were willing to please their partner and try sex without condoms, HIV-negative partners were equally willing to return to condoms. Interviewees talked about factors that helped them get used to relying on an undetectable viral load to prevent HIV transmission.
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Because they were taking part in the Opposites Attract study, couples were tested at least twice a year. The researchers say that although couples knew based on scientific evidence that having an undetectable viral load was effective prevention, it was the act of physically seeing consistent test results that made the concept less abstract — it was proof that the strategy was working.
The worry about catching something became less. Men could be confident that their partner was taking the necessary steps for them to be confident in having an undetectable viral load.
Reuse this content. This was not the case when men had casual partners. The San Diego Police Department confirmed that there have been at least five police reports made about incidents at St. When he started, about two and a half years ago, there were only about 40 people at a weekend Mass, said the pastor at the time, John P. Our award-winning series of booklets, with each title providing a comprehensive overview of one aspect of living with HIV. But much in the same way as it was when I was a closeted teen, the latent fear of being perceived as outside the norm — of never being the best simply because of who I am and will never be able to stop being — prevented me from seeing and speaking this truth, too.
One HIV-negative partner explained:. But I also know that he takes responsibility for his part in my health and so I have faith and trust in him that if there was an issue with bloods, we would talk about it. Partners were confident that an undetectable viral load would work for them because they managed it jointly, and it was the manifestation of trust, commitment, and familiarity that facilitated mutual responsibility.
This was not the case when men had casual partners. He had a different attitude with other sexual partners:. Relying on an undetectable viral load for HIV prevention may be appropriate in ongoing, committed relationships with good communication, but less so in other contexts, the interviewees suggested. For HIV-positive men, it would mean asking a casual partner to trust them. At St. McElroy of San Diego to start a ministry for L. Pope Francis has veered between sounding accepting and critical of L.
For five months, Mr. Bianco and then-Father Dolan met with community and church members to create an outreach strategy. They left fliers on doors, and invited new members to form choirs and sing at Mass. Young families joined. Many of the new members were straight, and many Hispanic. And they told their friends. The changes did not sit well with some of the older members, especially a handful of traditionalists who prayed the rosary there daily, according to interviews with parishioners and staff members.
In a piece on the conservative website Church Militant, two people who claimed to be parishioners — but who did not reveal their names — accused Mr. Bianco of locking out the rosary group, which he denies. The website called Mr. Commenters called Mr. Bianco a pederast. Several parishioners known to be opposed to the L.
Bianco did not respond to requests for interviews. In the summer of , the friction became worse when Father Dolan was made an auxiliary bishop, leaving Mr.
Bianco in charge of the parish. Bianco says he began receiving threatening phone calls at the church about every other day, from blocked numbers. There were angry notes left on his car, and one day he came out to find every tire had been punctured. A security camera captured a man with dark hair, but few other details. Bianco in an interview. I do believe that everyone is welcome.
In October , the pews were packed with people attending a special Mass for gay Catholics and their friends and families. We found none. We subjected the gay male earnings premium to a host of extra tests to see if we could make the result go away. We could not. The simplest explanation that came to mind first was the Dan Savage explanation: The patterns from these experiments certainly were consistent with the idea that better attitudes toward LGBTQ individuals could translate into better workplace outcomes for that group.
And yet there are also patterns that make the Dan Savage explanation difficult to square. Another is that although we find a very different result than prior work for relative earnings of gay men compared to straight men a premium versus a penalty , our companion analysis for women found a nearly identical result to decades of published work.
Previous studies have found that lesbians tend to earn more than straight women with similar education, experience, skills, and job characteristics, and our estimate using different data was right in line with those of prior work. But the finding does suggest several avenues for future study. First, there are increasingly more large federal surveys with information on sexual orientation and workplace outcomes, as well as education, experience, and job characteristics. Scholars should see if the gay male earnings premium we have identified replicates in other recently fielded surveys.
Second, because it is clear that workplace dynamics associated with sexual orientation are different for sexual minority men than for sexual minority women recall that there has been consistent evidence of a gay male earnings penalty and a lesbian earnings premium for most of the past two decades of study , more research is needed to understand the nature of workplace attitudes regarding sexual orientation and how these might differ between gay men and lesbians.